Welcome to the Site for Language Management in Canada (SLMC). We are pleased to invite you to explore each section of this site to acquaint yourself with the various aspects of language management in Canada.
The first section focuses on Canada's geopolitical situation to shed light on Canada as a geographic, legal, administrative, and demographic entity. The second section is devoted to the history of language in Canada, from the first languages spoken by aboriginal populations to the introduction of French and English. French-British rivalries determined the languages that would contribute to the formation of modern-day Canada. The demographic makeup progressively changed until the country became majority English speaking, notably after the American Revolution and the influx of Loyalists, then the later arrival of hundreds of thousands of immigrants in the 19th and 20th centuries. The introduction of official bilingualism in Canada in 1969 and the adoption of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms in 1982 brought considerable progress in terms of the protection of language rights and equality between the two official languages.
The third section describes languages present in Canada, namely the two official languages, French and English, plus aboriginal languages and other unofficial (or heritage) languages. The fourth section is devoted to language legislation in Canada, an area where Canadians have developed extensive expertise, as, in addition to the constitutional provisions of 1867 and 1982, there are no less than around 30 language laws currently in effect throughout Canada, not to mention an even greater number of other laws of linguistic significance (over 250 laws). The fifth section describes existing language organizations and services in Canada.
The sixth section compares the Canadian model to bilingualism in other countries. It shows how Canada compares and differs in terms of individual, territorial, and collective rights. The final section describes the main international organizations for language rights.