Canadian Constitution and Linguistic Provisions

The Canadian Constitution concerns all the provinces, as well as the federal government. When we say THE Canadian Constitution, it is important to understand that we are actually talking about many legal texts. In other words, Canada does not have a single constitutional text, but a good thirty documents (see list), of which the two main language statutes are the Constitution Act, 1867 and the Constitution Act, 1982, to which the Manitoba Act, 1870 (section 23) should be added. The Canadian Constitution currently in force includes the basic texts of 1867 and 1982. While all linguistic policies adopted in Canada by the various provincial and territorial governments are distinct and independent, all are subject to the linguistic provisions of the Canadian Constitution.